Warning: in_array() expects parameter 2 to be array, null given in include() (line 295 of /var/www/vhosts/mmi.fem.sumdu.edu.ua/httpdocs/sites/all/themes/mmi/node-article.tpl.php).

Freelancer as an entrepreneur: a choice as career development

Gabriela Opait1, Daniela Damian1, Alexandru Capatina1
1. «Dunarea de Jos» University of Galati (Romania)
327 - 340
Cite as:
Opait, G., Damian, D., Capatina, A. (2019). Freelancer as an Entrepreneur: a Choice as Career Development. Marketing and Management of Innovations, 3, 327-340. http://doi.org/10.21272/mmi.2019.3-25


Entrepreneurship starts to become a challenging option among freelancers worldwide. However, the low rate of entrepreneurship as a career choice among freelancers is due to peculiar factors. Turning freelance activities in sustainable businesses are considered a smart career pathway by many scholars and freelance practitioners. This article aims at revealing through a case study how a freelancer has been immersed into an entrepreneurial approach, his sources of income being influenced by this entrepreneurial mindset shift. This study computes the values of the adjusted informational energy based on inputs for distribution of incomes reported by a Romanian freelancer turned entrepreneur, emphasizing the time series revenues from freelancing, on the one hand, and entrepreneurship, on the other hand. The research is mainly focused on an econometric model, built on informational energy model, highlighting a peculiar decrease of the entropy, as the effect of the higher weights of the incomes from entrepreneurship. Building on mathematical modelling, this study presents an analysis framework that combines financial data and statistical analysis to examine the influence of revenues registered by a freelancer who accepted an entrepreneurial challenge as a second source of income. This study expands previous research by using Onicescu’s informational energy theory to a peculiar case of a freelancer turned entrepreneur. The strength of the adjusted informational energy modelling consists of revealing the added value of the statistical analysis and emphasizing the specific architecture of freelancer incomes’ influences on the adjusted informational energy. The findings of this research also outline motivation pillars for the freelancers who are willing to commit to entrepreneurial initiatives.

freelancing, entrepreneurship, informational energy, entropy, econometrics

  1. Amit, R., Glosten, L., & Muller, E. (1993). Challenges to theory development in entrepreneurship research. Journal of Management studies, 30(5), 815-834.
  2. Annink, A., Den Dulk, L., & Amorós, J. E. (2016). Different strokes for different folks? The impact of heterogeneity in work characteristics and country contexts on work-life balance among the self-employed. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 22(6), 880-902.
  3. Arthur, M. B., Claman, P. H., & DeFillippi, R. J. (1995). Intelligent enterprise, intelligent careers.
  4. Arthur, M., & Rousseau, D. (1996). The Boundaryless Career, Oxford University Press. New York, NY.
  5. Arulmani, G., Bakshi, A. J., Leong, F. T., & Watts, A. G. (2014). Handbook of career development. International Perspectives. New York: Springer.
  6. Autio, E. (2011). High-aspiration entrepreneurship. The Dynamics of Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Data, 251-275.
  7. Backes-Gellner, U., & Moog, P. (2013). The disposition to become an entrepreneur and the jacks-of-all-trades in social and human capital. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 47, 55-72.
  8. Backes-Gellner, U., & Moog, P. (2013). The disposition to become an entrepreneur and the jacks-of-all-trades in social and human capital. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 47, 55-72.
  9. Bögenhold, D., Heinonen, J., & Akola, E. (2014). Entrepreneurship and independent professionals: Social and economic logics. International Advances in Economic Research, 20(3), 295-310.
  10. Borowiecki, R., & Makieła, Z. J. (2019). Determinants of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Development in Local Areas of Economic Activity: a Case Study Analysis. In Forum Scientiae Oeconomia (Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 7-24).
  11. Burke, A., & Van Stel, A. (2011). The entrepreneurship enabling role of freelancers: Theory with evidence from the construction industry. International Review of Entrepreneurship, 9(3), 131-158.
  12. Damian, D., & Manea, C. (2019). Causal recipes for turning fin-tech freelancers into smart entrepreneurs. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jik.2019.01.003
  13. Daum, K. (2005). Entrepreneurs: the artists of the business world. Journal of Business Strategy, 26(5), 53-57.
  14. DeFillippi, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (2002). Career creativity to industry influence: A blueprint for the knowledge economy. Career Creativity. Explorations in the Remaking of Work, 298-313.
  15. Falco, P., & Haywood, L. (2016). Entrepreneurship versus joblessness: Explaining the rise in self-employment. Journal of Development Economics, 118, 245-265.
  16. Florea, I. (1986). Statistics, Vol. I. Cluj-Napoca: University Babeş-Bolyai.
  17. Greblikaite, J., Sroka, W., & Grants, J. (2015). Development of social entrepreneurship in European Union: policy and situation of Lithuania and Poland. Transformations in Business & Economics, 14.
  18. Lichtarski, J., & Trenkner, M. (2018). On the co-existence of innovation and creativity in the lean management environment. In Forum Scientiae Oeconomia (Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 67-81).
  19. McGrath, R. G., Mac Grath, R. G., & MacMillan, I. C. (2000). The entrepreneurial mindset: Strategies for continuously creating opportunity in an age of uncertainty (Vol. 284). Harvard Business Press.
  20. Omelianenko, V. A. (2017). Analysis of information asymmetry in innovation system security ensuring, Marketing and Management of Innovations, http://doi.org/10.21272/mmi.2017.4-17
  21. Onicescu, O. (1966). The informational energy, component of the statistical barometer concerning the systems. Bucharest: Technical Publishing House.
  22. Petrushenko, Y. M., & Dudkin, O. V. (2014). Crowdfunding as an innovative tool for financing projects of social and economic development. Sumy: Marketing and Management of Innovations (in Ukr.).
  23. Tams, S., & Arthur, M. B. (2010). New directions for boundaryless careers: Agency and interdependence in a changing world. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(5), 629-646.
  24. Unger, J. M., Rauch, A., Frese, M., & Rosenbusch, N. (2011). Human capital and entrepreneurial success: A meta-analytical review. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(3), 341-358.
  25. Van den Born, A., & Van Witteloostuijn, A. (2013). Drivers of freelance career success. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(1), 24-46.
  26. Van den Born, A., & Van Witteloostuijn, A. (2013). Drivers of freelance career success. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 34(1), 24-46.
  27. Wyrwich, M. (2013). Can socioeconomic heritage produce a lost generation with regard to entrepreneurship?. Journal of Business Venturing, 28(5), 667-682.