Media planning: classification of indexes

A.S. Krepak1
1. Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics (Kyiv, Ukraine)
123 - 132
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The results of the analysis. Actual media indexes cannot be used while planning advertising campaign, until they are calculated after advertisement is shown. This explains why indexes are applied based on historical data (from previous periods) and forecasts (anticipated indexes) when media is selected. Two types of media indexes such as quantitative and qualitative are extracted depending on description of contents.

Like all values, indexes of media planning can be divided into absolute and relative, depending on the method of calculation and measuring units used. Absolute means no comparison with anything. In addition, this type characterizes the magnitude of a statistical population and its indexes are always named (seconds, hryvnia, etc.). The advantage of relative indexes lies in the fact that they allow the comparison of variety of values. These indexes calculated by collation of absolute and average values or both and are presented as coefficients or percentages. In some cases, it is possible to use both forms. Taking into account the process of formation, we can also derive calculated, measured and conventional as separate types of media indexes, as it determines the complexity of the process and distinguishes the functional purpose.

Majority of indexes are versatile and are applicable in different advertising campaigns with media mixes. Some of them are specialized, i.e. designed to be used only in particular type of advertisements, like TV advertising. The variability of the ways the indexes form and notated allows to differentiate indexes further into natural (a person, a second, etc.), monetary (hryvnia, dollar, etc.) and relative units (coefficients and percentages) according to the units of measurement.

Depending on the purpose and conditions of application which differ by the objects of study, numbers and quantity of arithmetical operations, indexes are divided into individual (e.g. rating), gross (e.g. gross rating points), and mean (e.g. frequency of advertising campaign). Not only quantity of arithmetical operations, but also their nature causes differences between media indexes, which therefore can be primary and derivative (the first one determines the second). Besides that, media indexes have number of functions, thus divided into planning, controlling, evaluative and selling. Media indexes are compared with one another when studying changes in their values in time, giving us basic (comparable) and current (compared) indexes, which depends on application in dynamics analysis.

Some indexes accumulate over time. These can be divided into two groups: cumulative (value may increase) and noncumulative (the result cannot stack up). The influence of time factor also determines the agility of values of media indexes, which by this trait break down into dynamic (the majority of indexes) and static or relatively static – these values do not change or change only in special cases. The level of detail of target audience determines the next batch of indexes in media planning: generalized (characterize the audience in general), target (define only relevant part of general audience) and exclusive (present specific audience of particular media channel). Also, depending on territory of evaluation media indexes are divided into global, national, regional and local. The calculation of media indexes includes one or several evaluation factors. Consequently, based on the quantity of these factors we can define simple and complicated type of indexes.

Conclusions and prospects of further research. The need to classify media indexes, used as criterions in advertising planning, is determined by their significance in the managerial decisions, necessity to find the ways to optimize expenses and unify estimating procedures of advertising efficiency. Variety of media indexes characteristics gives the possibility to classify them by such attributes as stage of advertising planning, characteristic of content, method of calculation and measurement units, process of formation, field of application, measurement units, number of arithmetical operations and objects gauged, derivation, role, application in dynamics analysis, period of the figures accounting, accumulation property, influence of time factor, level of detail of target audience, territory of evaluation, quantity of accounting factors.

The prospects  of further study in this field is determined by importance of practical use of presented classification and the necessity to adopt it into education process of advertising specialists with goal to speed up the exchange of data and facilitate communications between different market entities.

media planning, media indexes, media measures, advertising campaign, rating, mass media, target audience

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