Developing the classification of non-traditional marketing communication tools

D.V. Raiko1, L.M. Tseytlin1, V.I. Kyrylenko1
1. National Technical University «Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute» (Kharkiv, Ukraine)
Innovations in Marketing
36 - 46


The aim of the article. This article’s objective is to clarify the classification of non-traditional ATL, BTL and TTL marketing communication (MC) instruments according to the following criteria: the direction of impact, the type impact, prevalence and duration of impact on the target audience.

The results of the analysis. A large number of non-traditional promotion tools emerge and some MC instruments evolve into distinct types; these developments are in need of generalization and analysis from the standpoint of their possible use in industrial activities. The problem of classifying ATL, BTL and TTL («above the line», «below the line» and «through the line») tools of MC remains controversial because there is no consensus on the separation among ATL, BTL and TTL tools and no criterion that could clearly differentiate MCs by type. The most contentious issue is the classification of certain promotional instrument as TTL and the nature of these instruments that emerged on the boundaries between traditional and non-traditional approaches.

This article identifies four basic traditional MC tools:

-  advertising is the information about any physical or corporate entity that is distributed in any non-personal form, through any media, is targeted to an undefined or a defined group of people, is released publicly, is paid for by the advertiser, and is intended to create or maintain the interest for this physical or corporate entity, their ideas and endeavors, and facilitate the sale of goods, realization of ideas or endeavors;

-  PR is a planned and sustained effort aimed at creating and maintaining friendly relations and mutual understanding between an organization and its public;

-  sales promotion is a marketing activity other than advertising, promotion and personal sales, stimulating the consumers to purchase and the dealers to be efficient;

-  personal communication is the integration of direct marketing and personal sales.

However, a rapid change in the environment and in particular communications causes the appearance of new promotional tools.

Many new MC tools appear due to emergence of the Internet and its penetration into all areas of life. Moreover, the capabilities of the Internet nowadays allow one to use traditional MC, combine different types of MC and create entirely new ones.

Just like any other MC, Internet has its advantages and disadvantages. However, at the same time, this type of MC is one of the most popular; also, the tools for promoting goods and services on the Internet are constantly evolving. It should be noted that the impact of the Internet on the development of MC, both traditional and non-traditional, resulted in following: interactive marketing with a corporate website as it is part has emerged as a separate tool; formation of company image and branding are seen as a form of communication; a large number of non-standard MC tools appeared.

Conclusions and directions of further researches. In this article the separation of ATL, BTL and TTL tools is based on the analysis of non-traditional marketing communication in the direction of impact, type of impact, prevalence and duration of impact on the target audience, as well as the nature of communication – unilateral or bilateral. As the result of this analysis, ATL, BTL and TTL instruments are defined as follows:

-  ATL-communication – traditional unilateral influence on the consumers’ minds without their inclusion in the dialogue with the seller through advertising;

-  BTL-communication – long-term strategy of placing brands on the market through sales promotion, direct marketing, public relations, exhibitions and advertising on the Internet;

-  TTL-communication – a modern interpretation of the integrated marketing communications concept formed through ATL and BTL.

Non-traditional MCs were classified according to these criteria in the article. Despite the large number of studies in this area, the problem of classifying MC tools in modern conditions remains relevant and necessitates further research.

marketing communications, sales promotion, ATL, BTL, TTL

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